"Upon becoming President of the United States, George Washington almost immediately set two critical foreign policy precedents: He assumed control of treaty negotiations with a hostile power—in this case, the Creek Nation of Native Americans—and then asked for congressional approval once they were finalized. In addition, he sent American emissaries overseas for negotiations without legislative approval.
Taking a Global Position
In 1789, the French Revolution sent shock waves across the Atlantic. Many Americans, mindful of French aid during their own struggle for independence, supported returning the favor. At the same time, the British were once again inciting Native Americans to attack settlers in the West, hoping to destabilize the fledgling Republic. American anger in response to these attacks served to reinforce sentiments for aiding France in any conflict with Great Britain. Washington was leery of any such foreign entanglement, considering his country too weak and unstable to fight another war with a major European power. His insistence on neutrality in foreign quarrels set another key precedent, as did his insistence that the power to make such a determination be lodged in the presidency.
Within days of Washington's second inauguration, France declared war on a host of European nations, England among them. Controversy over American involvement in the dispute redoubled. The Jefferson and Hamilton factions fought endlessly over the matter. The French ambassador to the U.S.—the charismatic, audacious 'Citizen' Edmond Genet—had meanwhile been appearing nationwide, drumming up considerable support for the French cause. Washington was deeply irritated by this subversive meddling, and when Genet allowed a French-sponsored warship to sail out of Philadelphia against direct presidential orders, Washington demanded that France recall Genet.
More British Challenges
In mid-1793, Britain announced that it would seize any ships trading with the French, including those flying the American flag. In protest, widespread civil disorder erupted in several American cities. By the following year, tensions with Britain were so high that Washington had to stop all American shipments overseas. Six large warships were commissioned; among them was the USS Constitution, the legendary 'Old Ironsides.' An envoy was sent to England to attempt reconciliation, but the British were now building a fortress in Ohio while increasing insurgent activities elsewhere in America.
The President's strong inclination in response to British provocations was to seek a diplomatic solution. But the envoy to England, John Jay, negotiated a weak treaty that undermined freedom of trade on the high seas and failed to compensate Americans for slaves taken by the British during the Revolution. Worst of all, the treaty did not address the then-common British practice of impressment. Congress approved the treaty with the proviso that trade barriers imposed by England be lessened. Washington, while dissatisfied with elements of the treaty, signed it nonetheless.
For the first time, members of the government openly criticized Washington. While this no doubt led to some hard feelings, it was also a milestone. The fledgling government chose partisan sides, verbally jousted with their President, everyone was heard, the public hurled angry rhetoric—and the government remained standing. It was the first example of the partisan give-and-take that has been essential to the survival of American democracy for over two centuries.
There was a single dreadful casualty. Washington's advisers presented him with evidence that Edmund Randolph, Jefferson's successor as secretary of state, had allegedly solicited a bribe from a French envoy to oppose the treaty with England. Although Randolph denied the charges, an angry Washington forced his old friend to resign. With this action, another important precedent was set. The Constitution empowers the President to nominate his principal officers with the advice and consent of the Senate; it says nothing, however, about the chief executive's authority to dismiss appointees. With Washington's dismissal of Randolph, the administrative system of the federal government was firmly tied to the President. In total, Washington dismissed three foreign ministers, two consuls, eight collectors, and four surveyors of internal revenue—all without seeking the advice or approval of Congress.
Foreign Policy in the Final Years
A pair of treaties—one with Algiers and another with Spain—dominated the later stages of Washington's foreign policy. Pirates from the Barbary region of North Africa were seizing American ships, kidnapping their crew members, and demanding ransom. These Barbary pirates forced a harsh treaty on the U.S. that demanded annual payments to the ruler of Algiers. It was, in short, a shakedown for protection money, and it hardened Washington's resolve to construct a viable navy. The ships built during his administration would prove to be instrumental in naval actions that ended disputes with Algiers in later administrations.
The agreement with Spain had a much happier outcome for Washington. Spanish-controlled Florida agreed to stop inciting Native American attacks on settlers. More importantly, Spain conceded unrestricted access of the entire Mississippi River to Americans, opening much of the Ohio River Valley for settlement and trade. Agricultural produce could now flow on flatboats down the Ohio and Cumberland Rivers to the Mississippi River and on to New Orleans and Europe.
John Jay's treaty with the British continued to have negative ramifications for the remainder of Washington's administration. France declared it in violation of agreements signed with America during the Revolution and claimed that it comprised an alliance with their enemy, Britain. By 1796, the French were harassing American ships and threatening the U.S. with punitive sanctions. Diplomacy did little to solve the problem, and in later years, American and French warships exchanged gunfire on several occasions.
A final precedent set by America's first President, while unpleasant for Washington, was beneficial to his nation. Newspapers sympathetic to the Jeffersonians, emboldened by the public controversy surrounding the treaty with England, became increasingly critical of Washington during his final two years in office. One called him 'Saint Washington,' another mockingly offered him a crown. To the President's considerable credit, he bore these attacks with dignity—not even responding to them publicly. Privately, he was deeply wounded by the attacks on his integrity, and toward the end of his life, he ceased to have any contact with Thomas Jefferson."
By Stephen KnottProfessor of National Security Affairs
United States Naval War College
For more details on George Washington visit the UVA | Miller Center website.
The next blog will be on Guardian® Supervisor Portrait of George Washington.
"On this day in 1795, President George Washington, eager to avert another war with Great Britain, signed the Jay Treaty with America’s former colonial master. (Its formal name was 'The Treaty of Amity, Commerce, and Navigation, Between His Britannic Majesty and the United States of America.')
The president had received reports that Britain, at war with post-revolutionary France, was interfering with American trade with the French and violating sections of the 1783 peace treaty that had ended the Revolutionary War with the United States. He responded by sending an envoy — John Jay, the chief justice of the U.S. Supreme Court — to London to try to smooth things over.
Jay [1745-1829], a proponent of strong, centralized government, had played a key role in the ratification of the U.S. Constitution by New York in 1788. He was a co-author of The Federalist Papers, along with Alexander Hamilton and James Madison, and wrote five of the 85 essays.
The U.S. government had several outstanding issues with the authorities in London:
* The British occupied forts on U.S. territory in the Great Lakes region, at Detroit and Mackinac in modern-day Michigan, Niagara and Oswego in New York, and Maumee in modern-day Ohio. (Britain said the occupations were in response to American refusals to pay debts that the U.S. had agreed to.)
*The British were continuing to impress American sailors into the Royal Navy to fight against France.
*American merchants sought compensation for 250 merchant ships, which the British had confiscated.
*Southern interests sought compensation for slaves owned by Loyalists who were deported to the West Indies, along with their masters.
*American merchants wanted the British West Indies to be reopened to American trade.
* The boundary with Canada remained vaguely defined in many places and needed to be better delineated.
*The British were providing munitions to First Nations peoples in armed conflict with settlers in the Northwest Territory.
Both sides achieved many of their objectives. Several issues were sent to arbitration, which after years of discussion were resolved amicably, mostly in favor of the United States. Britain paid $11.65 million for damages to American shipping and received £600,000 for unpaid pre-1775 debts. While international arbitration was not entirely unknown at the time, the Jay Treaty gave it an impetus and is widely seen as marking the start of modern arbitration between sovereign states.
Washington characterized his foreign policy as honoring a need to 'observe good faith and justice toward all nations. Cultivate peace and harmony with all.' He noted that the pact reflected America’s 'reluctance to hostility.'
It was denounced, however, by two future presidents, Thomas Jefferson and Madison, who held that it made too many concessions to the British. It angered the French while dividing Americans and led to the formation of two competing parties: the pro-Treaty Federalists and the anti-Treaty Democratic Republicans."
SOURCE: “THIS DAY IN PRESIDENTIAL HISTORY,” BY PAUL BRANDUS
This is an example of some of the negotiations that George Washington had to manage using his temperament as Guardian/Administrator/Supervisor (ESTJ) personality. It is interesting to note the number of people involved in this negotiation either directly or indirectly. This of course sets the stage for politics as we see today.
The next blog will be: George Washington: Foreign Affairs by Stephen Knott.
"Wherever you are; Get action!"
"The year 1912 was a presidential election year, and former President Theodore Roosevelt was again campaigning for the nation's highest office. By the evening of October 14 his campaign had carried him to Milwaukee, Wisconsin, where he was to deliver a speech in the city's public auditorium.The time was nearing for him to speak, so he strode from his hotel onto the sidewalk outside, where a car was waiting to take him to the auditorium.
As Roosevelt walked toward the car a man suddenly stepped up to him and pointed a pistol at his heart. The gunman pulled the trigger and a bullet burst from the pistol and smashed its way into Roosevelt's chest. His shirt was suddenly spattered with red, and more blood immediately began seeping from the ugly hole. The bullet had come to rest against his rib cage, a mere half inch from his lungs.
'He pinked me!' shouted Roosevelt, as bystanders rushed to subdue the gunman, John Shrank. They wrestled Shrank to the ground and then, seeing Roosevelt's bloody clothing, prepared to rush him to the hospital. But they found Teddy Roosevelt a more difficult man to deal with than the would-be assassin. "TR" adamantly refused to go for help. 'You just stay where you are!' he thundered. 'I am going to make this speech and you might as well compose yourself.'
Teddy Roosevelt was as good as his word that October evening. Still wearing his torn and red-stained shirt, he had himself driven to the auditorium and there, Shrank's bullet lodged in his chest, he pulled out his blood-spattered notes and gave his speech. 'I have a message to deliver,' he declared to the stunned audience, 'and I will deliver it as long as there is life in my body.'
It was a rousing performance. Roosevelt was a wonderful, charismatic orator under any circumstance, and the sight of his spattered shirt and notes added a spectacular portion of drama to his speech. Only after he had completely finished his performance did he take time to go to a hospital and have the wound tended."
Excerpted from Presidential Temperament by David Keirsey, PhD and Ray Choiniere
Portrait of the Artisan Promoter ESTP
Mornings on Horseback: The Story of an Extraordinary Family, a Vanished Way of Life and the Unique Child Who Became Theodore Rooseveltmagnetic
Promoters have a knack for knowing where the action is. They have an appreciation and palate for the finer things of life, the best food, the best wine, expensive cars, and fashionable clothes. They have a natural instinct for reading people, and are smooth in social circles, knowing many people by name, and knowing how to say just the right thing to most everyone they meet. Promoters exude charisma and their flamboyant style makes them irresistibly captivating.
Promoters are engaging and fully present with their audience. They poetically persuade others to have confidence in them and to go along with whatever they propose. They are highly energetic and can energize others. Their "in the moment" spontaneity keeps things exciting, and keeps the enterprise moving on the cutting edge. Promoters are so engaging with people; they are uncanny at reading people's faces and observing their body language, hypersensitive to the tiniest nonverbal cues that give away the other's attitudes.
These smooth operators are usually something of a mystery to others. Promoters are always in motion—they become restless when they are not on the move. Since they are always jumping from one activity to the next, they come across as unpredictable, but to themselves, they are actually quite deliberate about their movements. Those that are closest to them are fellow sprinters who move just as quickly. In relationships, others may feel that the only certainty in Promoters is that things are uncertain.
Promoters are daring thrill seekers, and feel quite at ease exposing themselves and their enterprises to risk. They firmly believe in the axiom, "The greater the risk, the greater the reward." The higher the stakes, the more emboldened they become—for it is only when excitement looms in the air, that they are stimulated and come alive. They encourage others to take bold risks as well, and can be impatient with weakness or timidity. These high-rolling entrepreneur are decisive, and are comfortable with "letting it ride."
Promoters cannot not take initiative. They are extremely proactive, and move quickly, aggressively, and preemptively to get to it first before all others do. They have a bias for action, seeking new experiences. And because of their high energy and lightning speed they can be sharp entrepreneurs, able to swing deals and kick-start enterprises in a way very few others can. Rather than working from behind the scenes, Promoters work best when they are out in front at the helm of the ship.
Promoters are optimistic and persuasive—without peer as deal makers, promoters, and negotiators. They are bold, aggressive, and produce results. They can be hard-nosed utilitarians, willing to do whatever it takes to achieve their goals. They are able to advertise or publicize their endeavors, and to maneuver others in the direction they want them to go. It might be said that people are instruments in the hands of these Promoters, and that they play them artistically.
Theodore Roosevelt certainly made a significant impact on the United States of America's future.
Building a Strong Foreign Policy:
Theodore Roosevelt Theodore Roosevelt...was one of America’s best presidents. He usually ranks in the top five of all presidents — a ranking he deserves. Roosevelt not only turned the United States into a true world power but he also began the long process of protecting the average U.S. citizen from the excesses of business. In the process, he increased the powers of the presidency, becoming the first strong president of the 20th century.
Stadelmann, Marcus. U.S. Presidents For Dummies (Kindle Locations 3309-3313). Wiley. Kindle Edition.
Whether you are interested in learning more about temperaments or President Theodore Roosevelt the following references and books will assist you in learning more about both.
Keirsey, David. Please Understand Me II. Prometheus Nemesis Book Company. Kindle Edition.
Keirsey, David. Presidential Temperament: Definitive Edition. Prometheus Nemesis Book Company. Kindle Edition.
McCullough, David. Mornings on Horseback: The Story of an Extraordinary Family, a Vanished Way of Life and the Unique Child Who Became Theodore Roosevelt
Strock, James M.. Theodore Roosevelt on Leadership. The Crown Publishing Group. Kindle Edition.
Roosevelt, Theodore. Theodore Roosevelt, An Autobiography (Annotated and Illustrated): Includes The Complete Essay "The Strenuous Life" and Over 40 Historical Photographs and Illustrations. Hinton Publishing. Kindle Edition.
"if I do not want what you want, please try not to tell me that my want is wrong. Or if I believe other than you, at least pause before you correct my view.
This blog was written to help people understand more about people. The theory presented represents the philosophy of "Win-Win" relationships in the negotiation process. First, it is important to understand people's types and temperaments. Second, having knowledge of these personalities will be advantageous when preparing for a negotiation. The types of negotiation discussed in this blog are long term and require long term relationships. Next, when one knows the people with whom they are negotiating, the development is enhanced and conflicts are reduced. In this way, all participants have a more constructive negotiation session.
The scope of a negotiation is extremely broad. Young and old, the novice and the veteran conduct negotiations throughout the world. Negotiation types are varied and can range from simple to complex. For example, negotiations take place between buyers and sellers, in corporate mergers, between diplomats and foreign countries and cultures in the United Nations, or between the Senate, the Congress, and the President of the United States. Family members negotiate with each other daily and it may or may not be money related. My point is that one should know something about the people with whom they are negotiating. This is a complex subject with simple principles. As we continue to study people, we continue to learn how to negotiate more effectively.
Over the next few days and weeks we will be reviewing the negotiation process through a review of the Temperaments of Presidents of the United States and other key people in the following industries:
"The best executive is one who has sense enough to pick good people to do what he wants done, and self-restraint enough to keep from meddling with them while they do it."
Theodore Roosevelt Jr. ( ROH-zə-velt; October 27, 1858 – January 6, 1919) was an American statesman and writer who served as the 26th President of the United States from 1901 to 1909. He also served as the 25th Vice President of the United States from March to September 1901 and as the 33rd Governor of New York from 1899 to 1900. As a leader of the Republican Party during this time, he became a driving force for the Progressive Era in the United States in the early 20th century.
Theodore Roosevelt greatly increased the power of the presidency, largely by taking the position that the president could exercise any right not specifically denied him by the Constitution.
Previously, Congress had been the most powerful branch of the government, but Roosevelt's presidency helped establish an influential and authoritative executive branch.
Before Roosevelt, business interests held inordinate power in the government, and the country's biggest employers were generally allowed to do whatever they liked. Roosevelt began regulating businesses, even going so far as to break up trusts that had gained too much market share and become effective monopolies. Roosevelt still recognized the value of large businesses to a healthy economy, but he insisted the public must be protected as well.
Roosevelt also saw an increased role for the president in foreign policy. His often repeated motto "Speak softly and carry a big stick," described his technique of being heavily engaged in foreign affairs in the American sphere of influence but not being afraid to impose America's will when needed.
He also saw the president's role as not only to defend the citizens, but also to defend the very resources of the country. To that end, he established national conservation programs to protect natural resources, placing more than 230 million acres of American land under federal protection.
The war of 1904–05 was fought between the Empire of Russia, an international power with one of the largest armies in the world, and the Empire of Japan, a nation which had only recently industrialized after two-and-a-half centuries of isolation. A series of battles in the Liaodong Peninsula had resulted in Russian armies being driven from southern Manchuria, and the Battle of Tsushima had resulted in a cataclysm for the Imperial Russian Navy. The war was unpopular with the Russian public, and the Russian government was under increasing threat of revolution at home. On the other hand, the Japanese economy was severely strained by the war, with rapidly mounting foreign debts, and its forces in Manchuria faced the problem of ever-extending supply lines. No Russian territory had been seized, and the Russians continued to build up reinforcements via the Trans-Siberian Railway. Recognizing that a long-term war was not to Japan's advantage, as early as July 1904 the Japanese government had begun seeking out intermediaries to assist in bringing the war to a negotiated conclusion.
The intermediary approached by the Japanese side was the United States President Theodore Roosevelt, who had publicly expressed a pro-Japanese stance at the beginning of the war. However, as the war progressed, Roosevelt had begun to show concerns on the strengthening military power of Japan and its impact on long-term United States interests in Asia. In February 1905, Roosevelt sent messages to the Russian government via the US ambassador to St Petersburg. Initially, the Russians were unresponsive, with Tsar Nicholas II still adamant that Russia would prove victorious in time. At this point, the Japanese government was also lukewarm to a peace treaty, as Japanese armies were enjoying an unbroken string of victories. However, after the Battle of Mukden, which was extremely costly to both sides in terms of manpower and resources, Japanese Foreign Minister Komura Jutarō judged that the time was now critical for Japan to push for a settlement.
On March 8, 1905, Japanese Army Minister Terauchi Masatake met with the American minister to Japan, Lloyd Griscom, to convey word to Roosevelt that Japan was ready to negotiate. However, from the Russian side, a positive response did not come until after the loss of the Russian fleet at the Battle of Tsushima. Two days after the battle, Tsar Nicholas II met with his grand dukes and military leadership and agreed to discuss peace. On June 7, 1905, Roosevelt met with Kaneko Kentarō, a Japanese diplomat, and on June 8 received a positive reply from Russia. Roosevelt chose Portsmouth, New Hampshire, as the site for the negotiations, primarily because the talks were to begin in August, and the cooler climate in Portsmouth would avoid subjecting the parties to the sweltering Washington, D.C. summer.
Portsmouth Peace Conference
The Japanese delegation to the Portsmouth Peace Conference was led by Foreign Minister Komura Jutarō, assisted by ambassador to Washington Takahira Kogorō. The Russian delegation was led by former Finance Minister Sergei Witte, assisted by former ambassador to Japan Roman Rosen and international law and arbitration specialist Friedrich Martens. The delegations arrived in Portsmouth on August 8 and stayed in New Castle, New Hampshire, at the Hotel Wentworth (where the armistice was signed), and were ferried across the Piscataqua River each day to the naval base in Kittery, Maine, where the negotiations were held.
The negotiations took place at the General Stores Building (now Building 86). Mahogany furniture patterned after the Cabinet Room of the White House was ordered from Washington.
Before the negotiations began Tsar Nicholas had adopted a hard line, forbidding his delegates to agree to any territorial concessions, reparations, or limitations on the deployment of Russian forces in the Far East. The Japanese initially demanded recognition of their interests in Korea, the removal of all Russian forces from Manchuria, and substantial reparations. They also wanted confirmation of their control of Sakhalin, which Japanese forces had seized in July 1905, partly for use as a bargaining chip in the negotiations.
A total of twelve sessions were held between August 9 and August 30. During the first eight sessions, the delegates were able to reach an agreement on eight points. These included an immediate cease fire, recognition of Japan's claims to Korea, and the evacuation of Russian forces from Manchuria. Russia was also required to return its leases in southern Manchuria (containing Port Arthur and Talien) to China, and to turn over the South Manchuria Railway and its mining concessions to Japan. Russia was allowed to retain the Chinese Eastern Railway in northern Manchuria.
The remaining four sessions addressed the most difficult issues, those of reparations and territorial concessions. On August 18, Roosevelt proposed that Rosen offer to divide the island of Sakhalin to address the territory issue. On August 23, however, Witte proposed that the Japanese keep Sakhalin and drop their claims for reparations. When Komura rejected this proposal, Witte warned that he was instructed to cease negotiations and that the war would resume. This ultimatum came as four new Russian divisions arrived in Manchuria, and the Russian delegation made an ostentatious show of packing their bags and preparing to depart. Witte was convinced that the Japanese could not afford to restart the war, and applied pressure via the American media and his American hosts to convince the Japanese that monetary compensation was something that Russia would never compromise on. Outmaneuvered by Witte, Komura yielded, and in exchange for the southern half of Sakhalin the Japanese dropped their claims for reparations.
The Treaty of Portsmouth was signed on September 5. The treaty was ratified by the Japanese Privy Council on October 10, and in Russia on October 14, 1905.
The signing of the treaty settled immediate difficulties in the Far East and created three decades of peace between the two nations. The treaty confirmed Japan's emergence as the pre-eminent power in East Asia, and forced Russia to abandon its expansionist policies there, but it was not well received by the Japanese people. The Japanese public was aware of their country's unbroken string of military victories over the Russians, but was less aware of the precarious overextension of military and economic power these victories had required. News of the terms of the treaty appeared to show Japanese weakness in front of the European powers, and this frustration caused the Hibiya riots, and the collapse of Katsura Tarō's cabinet on January 7, 1906.
Because of the role played by President Theodore Roosevelt, the United States became a significant force in world diplomacy. Roosevelt was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1906 for his back channel efforts before and during the peace negotiations, even though he never actually went to Portsmouth.
Tomorrow we will talk about President Theodore Roosevelt's Type Profile.
Matthew Bradshaw, CPSM, CPSD, C.P.M. is the Director of Programs for ISM-Houston, Inc.